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Vol. 33. Núm. 1.Enero 2013
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Vol. 33. Núm. 1.Enero 2013
Páginas 1-154
DOI: 10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2012.Nov.11736
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Efecto protector del alfa-tocoferol en nefropatía inducida por contraste en ratas
Protective effect of alpha tocopherol on contrast-induced nephropathy in rats
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Supranee Kongkhama, Siriwan Sriwongb, Adis Tasanarongc
a Preclinical Sciences, Thammasat University, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani, Thailand,
b Reserch Office, Thammasat University, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani, Thailand,
c Medicine, Thammasat University, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani, Thailand,
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Antecedentes: La nefropatía inducida por contraste (NIC) constituye una causa importante del fracaso renal agudo en pacientes hospitalizados. Esta tiene lugar tras la administración de un medio de radiocontraste intravenoso. El estrés oxidativo se ha presentado como uno de los mecanismos más importantes de la patogénesis de la NIC. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar el efecto del alfa-tocoferol sobre la reducción del fracaso renal en un modelo de rata de NIC. Métodos: Las ratas Sprague Dawley machos, tratadas previamente con alfa-tocoferol (250 o 500 mg/kg/día) o con tween80 durante los 5 días anteriores a la inducción de CIN, fueron divididas en 6 grupos. Se determinaron los marcadores de la función renal y del estrés oxidativo, el nivel de malondialdehído (MDA), la capacidad antioxidante total (CAT) y la actividad de la superóxido dismutasa (SOD). Se seccionaron los tejidos de los riñones para el examen histopatológico. Resultados: En el grupo de medio de contraste (MC), se detectó un aumento de la urea sérica y de la creatinina. Asimismo, se demostró la presencia de necrosis tubular y de congestión capilar peritubular en este grupo. También se detectó un desequilibrio de los marcadores de estrés oxidativo, un aumento de MDA y una disminución de la actividad de la SOD en el riñón.  Por el contrario, en el grupo de ratas con NIC inducida a las que se les administró alfa-tocoferol, se observó una reducción importante de la función renal y de la MDA renal, junto con un aumento significativo de la SOD renal. Curiosamente, en comparación con el grupo MC, en este grupo se demostró una reducción de MDA y un aumento de la CAT sérica, así como la prevención de la lesión tubular. Conclusión: Este estudio ha demostrado que el alfa-tocoferol posee un efecto protector del daño renal en ratas con NIC inducida. Por lo tanto, esta vitamina podría utilizarse como antioxidante para atenuar el daño oxidativo del radiocontraste.

Palabras clave:
Alfa-tocoferol
Palabras clave:
Nefropatía inducida por contraste
Palabras clave:
Estrés oxidativo

Background: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a prominent cause of in-hospital acute kidney injury occurring after the administration of intravenous radiocontrast medium. Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the more important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CIN. The aim of the present study has been to determine the effect of alpha tocopherol on the reduction of renal damage in a rat model of CIN. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected into six groups pretreated with alpha-tocopherol (250 or 500mg/kg/day) or the vehicle tweeen80 for 5 days before the induction of CIN. Renal function and oxidative stress markers; level of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined. Kidney tissues were sectioned for pathohistological examination. Results: In the contrast media (CM) group, an increase in serum urea and creatinine was found. Tubular necrosis and peritubular capillary congestion were demonstrated in this group. Also, an imbalance of oxidative stress markers; an increase in MDA and a decreased SOD activity in kidney were shown. On the contrary, in CIN-induced rats administrated with alpha-tocopherol group, a significant reduction of renal function and renal MDA, together with a significant increase of renal SOD, were observed. Interestingly, a reduction in MDA and an increase of TAC in serum, along with prevention of tubular injury, were demonstrated in this group, as compared to the CM group. Conclusion: This present study demonstrated that alpha tocopherol showed protective effect on the rat renal damage induced CIN. Therefore, this vitamin could be used as an antioxidant to attenuate the radiocontrast oxidative damage.

Keywords:
Alpha tocopherol
Keywords:
Contrast-induced nephrophathy (CIN)
Keywords:
Oxidative stress
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Bibliografía
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